"The work also hints at potential new treatments. No new drugs for endometriosis have been approved in decades, and most of the current ones target hormones that can fuel the growth of uterine tissue. “The first line is always a birth-control pill,” said Taylor. This approach seems to work for some women, reducing pain and perhaps stopping the growth of lesions, but not for everyone, and sometimes its effectiveness wanes. Patients also commonly use drugs like ibuprofen, which target inflammation but are not specifically designed to treat endometriosis. The M.I.T. group’s work suggests that it might be possible to reduce inflammation in a more targeted way in some patients with the disease."